Chhattisgarh, the 26th state of the Indian Union came into existence on November 1,2000. The state is geographically situated between 17046'N and 2405 North Latitude and 80015'E and 84020' East Longitude. The total geographical area is around 136 lakh ha. of which cultivable land area is 58.81 lakh ha & forest land area is 60.76 lakh ha with more than 2.07 crore population. About 80 percent of the population in the state is engaged in agriculture and 43 percent of the entire arable land is under cultivation. Paddy is the principal crop and the central plains of Chhattisgarh are known as rice bowl of central India. Other major crops are coarse grains, wheat, maize, groundnut, pulses and oilseeds. The region is also suitable for growing mango, banana, guava & other fruits and a variety of vegetables with 44 percent of its area under forests it has one of the richest bio-diversity areas in the country. It has abundant minor forest produce like Tendu leaves, Sal seed, etc. Medicinal plants, bamboo, lac and honey are other potential money earners for the state. Chhattisgarh has embarked on a concerted plan to increase double cropped areas, diversify the cropping pattern and improve incomes from agro-based small-scale enterprises. In order to unlock the true potential of agriculture sector in the state, government is paying special attention towards better management of its water resources. To reduce the farmers dependence on rainfall, government is working towards increasing the irrigation potential of the state. It is estimated that approximately 43 lakh hectares can be potentially irrigated covering 75 percent of the entire cropped area in the state. Ravi Shankar Sagar Mahanadi project, Hasdeo-Bango, Kodar and others are some of the important irrigation projects in the state.
Agro-climatically, Chhattisgarh may be divided into 3 distinct zones with immense potential for agricultural development.
1. CHHATTISGARH PLAINS:-
|The plains cover districts of Raipur, Mahasamund, Dhamtari, Durg, Rajnandgaon, Kawardha, Bilaspur, Korba, Janjgir and a part of Kanker district (Narharpur & Kanker blocks) along with a part of Raigarh district.|
2. BASTAR PLATEAU:-
|The Bastar plateau region comprises of Jagdalpur, Dantewada and the remaining part of Kanker district.|
3. NORTHERN HILLS:-
|It covers districts of Sarguja, Korea and Jashpurnagar and Dharamjaigarh Tehsil of Raigarh district.|
Population of India is growing profusely and the cultivable area is getting converted into
residential area. With no scope in expansion of cultivable area in future, increase in
productivity has become the urgent need to meet the food requirement of increasing
population. The productivity can be increased by efficient and timely use of all resources
including inputs like HYV seeds, fertilizer, pesticides irrigation water, agriculture
machinery etc. It is a well known fact that mechanization of agricultural operation is
beneficial for reducing cost of production.
Energy requirement of agricultural operations like seed bed preparation, harvesting,
threshing and seed processing is very high and it is not possible to perform these jobs
efficiently and timely by traditional methods. Introduction of farm machineries enables
timely operations resulting in increased
production besides the reduced drudgery.
Farmers of Chhattisgarh are used to
cultivate mostly paddy in
kharif season with an intention to grow summer paddy too,
whenever irrigattion sources available. As a second crop after paddy, majority
of farmers prefer to grow gram, mustard, linseed, lathy which provide less
profit as compared to horticulture crops i.e. vegetables, flowers, medicinal and
Rainfed cultuvation and low productivity of rice (around 1.5 t/ha) along with
recurring drought condition lead to large-scale migration of landless laborers and also
marginal farmers. Such a trend can br reversed and the socio-economic conditions of the
farmers as also the nutritional levels of the general population can be improved only with
proper development of horticulture in this new state.
. About 20% soil of the cultivated area in the region is red-laterite (Bhata) soil,
which is mostly unutilized for growing any crop. These Bhata soil can be better utilized
to grow fruit crops under rain fed/dry land horticulture.
Horticulture development can assure year-round employment to farm labourers and once horticulture is developed, allied sectors like processing, packaging and export can also gain momentum